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Cynognathus, a Triassic land reptile, fossils are found in South America and Africa.
The Triassic era was between 250,000,000 and 200,000,000 years ago.
All life on Earth uses a three-letter code to produce 20 standard amino acids.
Researchers have artificially expanded the genetic code to produce additional amino acids as tools, but all natural life use the same 20 amino acids from our common descent.
Take a quantity of uranium-238 and in 4.5 billion years half of it will have turned into lead-206.
When molten rock hardens into a solid, the uranium-238 within it begins to decay.
By measuring the ratio of carbon-14 in a younger fossil, scientists can estimate its age.
These fossilized bacterial colonies date back 2.7 billion years and may extend 3.4 billion years.
Genes that code for proteins are composed of three-nucleotides (U/T, A, G, or C).
In 1952 Stanley Miller and Harold Urey synthesized organic compounds from inorganic precursors found in the Earth’s original atmosphere, producing more than 20 different amino acids using electrical sparks to simulate lightning.
Speciation is the process by which new species are formed.
When a species gets split into two groups by a river, mountain range, island, lake, or ocean via earthquakes, floods, droughts, climate change, or continental drift, the two populations will begin to drift genetically.
Mutations that reduce an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce will be less likely to end up in offspring.
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